Friday, March 13, 2020
Biography of Andrew Carnegie, Steel Magnate Andrew Carnegie (November 25, 1835Ã¢â¬âAugust 11, 1919) was a steel magnate, leading industrialist, and philanthropist. With a keen focus on cost-cutting and organization, Carnegie was often regarded as a ruthless robber baron, though he eventually withdrew from business to devote himself to donating money to various philanthropic causes. Fast Facts: Andrew Carnegie Known For:Ã Carnegie was a preeminent steel magnate and a major philanthropist.Born:Ã November 25, 1835 in Drumferline, ScotlandParents:Ã Margaret Morrison Carnegie and William CarnegieDied:Ã August 11, 1919 in Lenox, MassachusettsEducation: Free School in Dunfermline, night school, and self-taught through Colonel James Andersons libraryPublished Works:Ã An American Four-in-hand in Britain, Triumphant Democracy, The Gospel of Wealth, The Empire of Business, Autobiography of Andrew CarnegieAwards and Honors:Ã Honorary Doctor of Laws, University of Glasgow, honorary doctorate, University of Groningen, the Netherlands. The following are all named for Andrew Carnegie: the dinosaur Diplodocus carnegii, the cactus Carnegiea gigantea, the Carnegie Medal childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s literature award, Carnegie Hall in New York City, Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh.Spouse(s): Louise WhitfieldChildren: MargaretNotable Quote: Ã¢â¬Å"A library outranks any other one thing a community ca n do to benefit its people. It is a never failing spring in the desert.Ã¢â¬ Early Life Andrew Carnegie was born at Drumferline, Scotland on November 25, 1835. When Andrew was 13, his family emigrated to America and settled near Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His father had worked as a linen weaver in Scotland and pursued that work in America after first taking a job in a textile factory. Young Andrew worked in the textile factory, replacing bobbins. He then took a job as a telegraph messenger at the age of 14, and within a few years was working as a telegraph operator. He educated himself through his voracious reading, benefitting from the generosity of a local retired merchant, Colonel James Anderson, who opened his small library to working boys. Ambitious at work, Carnegie was promoted to be an assistant to an executive with the Pennsylvania Railroad by the age of 18. During the Civil War, Carnegie, working for the railroad, helped the federal government set up a military telegraph system, which became vital to the war effort. For the duration of the war, he worked for the railroad. EarlyÃ Business Success While working in the telegraph business, Carnegie began investing in other businesses. He invested in several small iron companies, a company that made bridges, and a manufacturer of railroad sleeping cars. Taking advantage of oil discoveries in Pennsylvania, Carnegie also invested in a small petroleum company. By the end of the war, Carnegie was prosperous from his investments and began to harbor greater business ambitions. Between 1865 and 1870, he took advantage of the increase in international business following the war. He traveled frequently to England, selling the bonds of American railroads and other businesses. It has been estimated that he became a millionaire from his commissions selling bonds. While in England, he followed the progress of the British steel industry. He learned everything he could about the new Bessemer process, and with that knowledge, he became determined to focus on the steel industry in America. Carnegie had absolute confidence that steel was the product of the future. And his timing was perfect. As America industrialized, putting up factories, new buildings, and bridges, he was perfectly situated to produce and sell the steel the country needed. Carnegie the Steel Magnate In 1870, Carnegie established himself in the steel business. Using his own money, he built a blast furnace. He created a company in 1873 to make steel rails using the Bessemer process. Though the country was in an economic depression for much of the 1870s, Carnegie prospered. A very tough businessman, Carnegie undercut competitors and was able to expand his business to the point where he could dictate prices. He kept reinvesting in his own company, and though he took in minor partners, he never sold stock to the public. He could control every facet of the business, and he did it with a fanatical eye for detail. In the 1880s, Carnegie bought out Henry Clay FrickÃ¢â¬â¢s company, which owned coal fields as well as a large steel mill in Homestead, Pennsylvania. Frick and Carnegie became partners. As Carnegie began to spend half of every year at an estate in Scotland, Frick stayed in Pittsburgh, running the day-to-day operations of the company. The Homestead Strike Carnegie began to face a number of problems by the 1890s. Government regulation, which had never been an issue, was being taken more seriously asÃ reformers actively tried to curtail the excesses of businessmen known as robber barons. The union which represented workers at the Homestead Mill went on strike in 1892. On July 6, 1892, while Carnegie was in Scotland, Pinkerton guards on barges attempted to take over the steel mill at Homestead. The striking workers were prepared for the attack by the Pinkertons, and a bloody confrontation resulted in the death of strikers and Pinkertons. Eventually, an armed militia had to take over the plant. Carnegie was informed by transatlantic cableÃ of the events in Homestead. But heÃ made no statement and did not get involved. He would later be criticized for his silence, and he later expressed regrets for his inaction. His opinions on unions, however, never changed. He fought against organized labor and was able to keep unions out of his plants during his lifetime. As the 1890s continued, Carnegie faced competition in business, and he found himself being squeezed by tactics similar to those he had employed years earlier. In 1901, tired of business battles, Carnegie sold his interests in the steel industry to J.P. Morgan, who formed the United States Steel Corporation. Carnegie began to devote himself entirely to giving away his wealth. CarnegieÃ¢â¬â¢s Philanthropy Carnegie had already been giving money to create museums, such as the Carnegie Institute of Pittsburgh. But his philanthropy accelerated after selling Carnegie Steel. Carnegie supported numerous causes, including scientific research, educational institutions, museums, and world peace. He is best known for funding more than 2,500 libraries throughout the English-speaking world, and, perhaps, for building Carnegie Hall, a performance hall that has become a beloved New York City landmark. Death Carnegie died of bronchial pneumonia at his summer home in Lenox, Massachusetts on August 11, 1919. At the time of his death, he had already given away over a large portion of his wealth, more than $350 million. Legacy While Carnegie was not known to be openly hostile to the rights of workers for much of his career, his silence during the notorious and bloody Homestead Steel Strike cast him in a very bad light in labor history. Carnegies philanthropy left a huge mark on the world, including the endowment of many educational institutions and the funding of research and world peace efforts. The library system he helped form is a foundation of American education and democracy. Sources Ã¢â¬Å"Andrew Carnegies Story.Ã¢â¬ Ã Carnegie Corporation of New York.Carnegie, Andrew. Autobiography of Andrew Carnegie. PublicAffairs, 1919.Carnegie, Andrew. The Gospel of Wealth and Other Timely Essays. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1962.Nasaw, David. Andrew Carnegie. Penguin Group, 2006.
Tuesday, February 25, 2020
Human resources management - Research Paper Example This also includes the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ need for training and development so that they may be able to customize their skills as per the need of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s. 2. Advancement in technology MacDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s needs to train its workforce to not only update them on the latest technologies in the food manufacturing industry, but also inculcate the necessary skills in them to use those technologies in the best interest of the company. 3. Regulatory changes Change at McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is inevitable. Things have been constantly changing both within McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s and in the external factors influencing McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s since the company has been established. These factors include but are not limited to the laws and regulations, politics, economics, and the lifestyle of people in general. For example, the new laws may oblige McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s to keep the calorie count in the kidsÃ¢â¬â¢ meal below a certain threshold. In this case, the employees would need to be trained to follow t he alternate menu with low calorie-count. 4. Organizational changes The need to training and develop of the workforce does not only arise from technological reasons. The environmental factors play a prime role in the ability of an organization to achieve the competitive advantage. One such factor is the organizational change. As McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s is an international corporation, and the company feels the need to relocate its workers at different restaurants around the globe, there is a constant change happening in the organizational structure. The employees need to be trained in order to enable them to adjust to the organizational changes immediately without losing their efficiency because of such factors as change of the leader. Q. 3 Part (b) Comparison of the Responsibilities of Human Resource Specialists and Other Managers in the Administration of the EmployeesÃ¢â¬â¢ Compensations Responsibilities of human resource specialists Responsibilities of human resource specialists are: 1. The human resource specialists participate in the development of budget. So they may advise on the increase of compensation of a specific employee considering his/her exceptional performance. 2. The human resource specialists represent the official at the meetings, so they can openly discuss the compensation related issues of the employees in meetings. 3. The human resource specialists conduct interviews of the interested candidates, so they play a decisive role in the establishment of the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s salary. Responsibilities of other managers Other managers include but are not limited to the Finance Manager and the General Manager. Responsibilities of other managers are: 1. The responsibility of the Finance Manager is to make sure that all employees are paid on time. 2. Another responsibility of the Finance Manager is to keep a record of all payments made to a certain employee so that the record may be referred to in the hour of need. 3. The responsibility of the General Manager is to provide funds to the company to make the cash flow cycle going so that no compensation issues arise. Q. 4 Part (a) Implementation of Safety Management Program at McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s Six elements that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢
Sunday, February 9, 2020
Train Wreck and Cholorine spill - Case Study Example The tragic accident caused the death of nine people and displaced more than 5,000 from their residences, thus permanently altering the community. Although the eventual death toll was surprisingly low, the study shows that localsÃ¢â¬â¢ response to the emergency situation had significant gaps and it also emphasizes on the need to transform major organizationsÃ¢â¬â¢ practices especially in handling hazardous materials. This case study, therefore, seeks to evaluate decision making processes in regard to no-notice evacuation during emergency situations, as well as, determining long-term effects of the chlorine disaster on organizations dealing with transportation. Overall, the case study attempts to highlight the necessity for improvement of evacuation procedures and recovery of transportation (Dunning & Oswalt, 2009). There are several specific issues emerging from the chlorine spill case study. For instance, operation concepts of rail transportation emerged, like the importance of keen train control, as well as, installation of automated warning technologies. The other outstanding issue in the study was the local communityÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of information about emergency procedures to adopt in case of a chlorine spill, despite the fact that the hazardous material was transported across the town each day. The publicÃ¢â¬â¢s need for transportation to their jobs following the evacuation was also a principal concern and so was provision of documents about transportation infrastructure, in order to foster recovery. Overall, evacuation concerns were the most outstanding in this case. For instance, locals did not know whether to seek shelter or completely leave the town, they also had no information about the safest routes to follow, or the best way to behave and collaborate with emergency workers, in or der to avoid being affected by the hazardous material. The
Thursday, January 30, 2020
People Love To Have Pets, But What Do Pets Want Essay There are many animals that would prefer to stay as far away from the indoors as possible! Even though some people keep their pets inside most of the time, they would much rather be outside living in their natural habitat. Many animals are covered in fur to protect them from cold weather and to keep animals such as dogs, cats, rabbits and mice is unethical treatment from humans when they would rather be outdoors where they were intended to live with other animals. There are those humans who simply donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to take their animals outdoors, and then there are others who enjoy caging wild animals, such as snakes, turtles, mice and lizards for their own enjoyment. It is unnatural for many animals who havenÃ¢â¬â¢t adapted to existing in an enclosed environment and it is unethical treatment against wildlife to hold them indoors, against their will. It is sad when you hear about people who mistreat animals and are careless to the petÃ¢â¬â¢s desires of wanting to roam around in their natural habitat. There are occasions when animals are never allowed to go outdoors and are strictly kept in cages and fed manually by the pet owner. Ã¢â¬Å"We humans create homes that feel, smell, sound and look good to us, not our cat,Ã¢â¬ Ingrid Newkirk explains in her book, Ã¢â¬Å"250 Things You Can Do To Make Your Cats Adore You. Ã¢â¬ The author relates that our pets are not always comfortable and happy just because we are. We need to consider the comfort of every pet.
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
SelbstÃÂ¼berschreitung: Jonas Cohns Wertphilosophie und PÃÂ¤dagogik vor dem Hintergrund der Ethik Friedrich Nietzsches :: German Essays
SelbstÃ ¼berschreitung: Jonas Cohns Wertphilosophie und PÃ ¤dagogik vor dem Hintergrund der Ethik Friedrich Nietzsches ABSTRACT: Teaching philosophy and pedagogy at the University of Freiburg from 1897 to 1933, Jonas Cohn fought mainly against Friedrich Nietzsche and the influence of the ethics of Nietzsche on the youth of his time. A declaration made by Cohn in the Preface of his Science of Value (1932) shows this: "The title 'science of value' means polemics, too: I fight against all, who following Nietzsche deny the possibility of a science of value." But this opposition to Nietzsche and to his followers is not the only aspect of Cohn's relation to Nietzsche. On the other side, Cohn attempted to integrate some of the important traits of Nietzsche's ethic in his own conception of philosophy and pedagogics. The expression "self-transcendence" (SelbstÃ ¼berschreitung) stands for this ambition of Cohn. This can be demonstrated by some biographical data and by the interpretation of Cohn's philosophy of value. "'Wertwissenschaft' ist auch polemisch gemeint: Ich kÃ ¤mpfe gegen alle, die im Gefolge Nietzsches eine Wissenschaft vom Werte leugnen." - Diese eindeutige ErklÃ ¤rung stellte der reife Jonas Cohn, Philosoph und Erziehungswissenschaftler an der UniversitÃ ¤t Freiburg von 1897 bis 1933, seiner "Wertwissenschaft" von 1932, seinem Hauptwerke, im Vorwort voran. Hat Jonas Cohn seine Lebensarbeit gegen Friedrich Nietzsche und dessen Wirkung ausgerichtet? Ich mÃ ¶chte diese, von Cohn selbst nahegelegte, Auffassung relativieren und aufweisen, daÃÅ¸ Cohns Wertphilosophie und Erziehungslehre trotz weitreichender Differenzen ZÃ ¼ge Nietzschischen Geistes aufgenommen hat. Der Titel und Grundbegriff der Cohnschen Ethik "SelbstÃ ¼berschreitung" signalisiert nicht nur ParallelitÃ ¤t und NÃ ¤he zu Nietzsche; "SelbstÃ ¼berschreitung zeigt auch an, daÃÅ¸ Cohn Intentionen Nietzsches, Momente des fÃ ¼r Nietzsche signifikanten Begriffs der "SelbstÃ ¼berwindung" in seine "objektive Wertlehre" Ã ¼bergefÃ ¼hrt hat. Ich werde zunÃ ¤chst anhand einiger biographischer Daten die Bedeutung Nietzsches fÃ ¼r Cohn wahrscheinlich machen, bevor der Inhalt der Wertphilosophie und Ethik Cohns selbst kurz zur Sprache kommen soll. Drei Momente sind auszufÃ ¼hren, die Cohn in seiner Biographie mit Nietzsche konfrontierten: Zeitliche und Ã ¶rtliche NÃ ¤he zu Nietzsche und die persÃ ¶nliche Begegnung mit Denkern, die Cohn beeinfluÃÅ¸ten. Jonas Cohn (1869-1947) studierte nach einem glÃ ¤nzenden Abitur in Berlin (1888) zunÃ ¤chst in Leipzig, Heidelberg und Berlin Naturwissenschaft und promovierte mit einer experimentellen Arbeit in Botanik in Berlin 1892 zum Doktor der Philosophie. Nach der Promotion in Botanik wandte sich Cohn dem engeren Gebieten der Philosophie zu, ohne dabei zu unterlassen, seinem "geistigen Leben durch empirische Einzelarbeit gleichsam einen festen Unterbau zu schaffen". (SD, (1) S. 6) Diesen empirischen Unterbau erwarb sich Cohn in der experimentellen Psychologie bei Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) und Oswald KÃ ¼lpe (1862-1915) in Leipzig, wo Cohn in den Jahren 1892 bis 94 am Psychologischen Institut arbeitete.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Miller v. Alabama (2012) Supreme Court Case Introduction The Supreme Court reviewed the constitutionality of mandatory life sentences without parole enforced upon persons aged fourteen and younger found guilty of homicide. The court declared unconstitutional a compulsory sentence of life without parole for children. The states have been barred from routinely imposing sentences based on the crime committed. There is a requirement for individual consideration of the child life circumstance or the defendant status as a child. The court rejected the definite ban on life sentences without parole. This is because in some cases the instances may be uncommon, but jurorsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦That is why in Roper v. Simons, capital punishment for children was prohibited by the eighth amendment. In Graham v. Florida the eighth amendment also prohibited life sentence without parole for juvenile found guilty of non-homicide cases. This case further associated life sentence without parole for juvenile to death sentence. This suggested the secon d line of precedent that the court requires sentencing system to consider the details of the offence and characteristics of the defendant before sentencing him or her to death. The two line of precedents guide the court to conclude that life sentence without parole for juveniles in fringe on the eighth amendment. The court decision was influenced by Graham and Roper cases that established for sentencing reasons children are different from adults under the constitution. Children lack maturity and have no developed sense of responsibility. This leads them to be impulsive and reckless. In Roper it was held children are exposed to outside pressure and negative influences from friends. Therefore, they have less control of their environment because the childÃ¢â¬â¢s nature is not2 well informed. Graham and Roper emphasized distinguishing traits of children weakening justification for inflicting harsh sentences to juveniles even when they commit outrageous crimes. The court held in 5-4 majority that the eighth amendment forbids unusual andShow MoreRelatedJuvenile Violent Crime And Juvenile Crime Rates1720 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfor the legislation to have to act on what the people want and leads to changes in criminal justice policy. Mandatory Sentencing for Juveniles has changed drastically over the last 10 to 20 years and led to the revising of many laws. The case Graham vs. Florida, involved a 16 year old who committed armed burglary with assault or battery with attempted armed robbery both charges are felonies. These charges carry a maximum possibility of life without the possibility of parole plus 15 years in prisonRead MoreFood Disparagement Laws Essay1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageson grounds that the alleged defamation was directed at a product, and that food could not be defamed. 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ThoughRead MoreThe Reproductive Rights Of Women1940 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pageslandmark case Roe vs. Wade that it was legally a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s right to have an abortion in 1973, and clearly outlines that states Ã¢â¬Å"cannot pass laws that create an undue burdenÃ¢â¬ for women who choose to exercise their rights and terminate their pregnancy. Since then, there have been consistent challenges from many states along with pro-life organizations all over the country to find ways to limit and to control the reproductive rights of women. In 1992, even though the ruling of Roe vs. Wade was confirmedRead MoreBrief Survey of American Literature3339 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesRevolution(1789Ã¢â¬â1799) Romantic vs. Neoclassic (1) Neoclassicism: - reason, order, elegant wit - rationalism of enlightenment in 18th-cent. 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